- Mary the mother of Jesus Biography
- Mary, mother of Jesus - Wikipedia
- Mary, mother of Jesus
- Dogmatic titles
Certain Lutheran churches such as the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church however, continue to venerate Mary and the saints in the same manner that Roman Catholics do, and hold all Marian dogmas as part of their faith. Methodists do not have any additional teachings on the Virgin Mary except from what is mentioned in Scripture and the ecumenical Creeds. As such, Methodists accept the doctrine of the Virgin Birth , but reject the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception. Nontrinitarians , such as Unitarians , Christadelphians , Jehovah's Witnesses , and Latter Day Saints  also acknowledge Mary as the biological mother of Jesus Christ , but most reject any immaculate conception and do not recognize Marian titles such as "Mother of God".
The Latter Day Saint movement's view affirms the virgin birth of Jesus  and Christ's divinity but only as a separate being than God the Father. The Book of Mormon refers to Mary by name in prophecies and describes her as "most beautiful and fair above all other virgins"  and as a "precious and chosen vessel. Since most Non-trinitarian groups are typically also Christian mortalists , Mary is not seen as an intercessor between humankind and Jesus, whom mortalists would consider "asleep", awaiting resurrection. The issue of the parentage of Jesus in the Talmud affects also the view of his mother.
However, the Talmud does not mention Mary by name and is considerate rather than only polemic. Brown considers the story of Panthera a fanciful explanation of the birth of Jesus that includes very little historical evidence. The Virgin Mary holds a singularly exalted place in Islam and she is considered by the Qur'an to have been the greatest woman in the history of humankind. The Islamic scripture recounts the Divine Promise given to Mary as being: God has chosen thee, and purified thee; He hath chosen thee above all the women of creation" 3: Mary is often referred to by Muslims by the honorific title "sayedetina" our lady.
She is mentioned in the Qur'an as the daughter of Imran. Moreover, Mary is the only woman named in the Qur'an and she is mentioned or referred to in the scripture a total of fifty times. In a narration of Hadith from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq , he mentions that Allah revealed to Imran , "I will grant you a boy, blessed, one who will cure the blind and the leper and one who will raise the dead by My permission. And I will send him as an apostle to the Children of Israel. When she became pregnant, she conceived it was a boy, but when she gave birth to a girl, she stated "Oh my Lord!
Verily I have delivered a female, and the male is not like the female, for a girl will not be a prophet," to which Allah replies in the Quran Allah knows better what has been delivered[3: When Allah bestowed Jesus to Mary, he fulfilled his promise to Imran. Mary was declared uniquely along with Jesus to be a "Sign of God" to humanity;  as one who "guarded her chastity";  an "obedient one";  "chosen of her mother" and dedicated to Allah whilst still in the womb;  uniquely amongst women "Accepted into service by God";  cared for by one of the prophets as per Islam Zakariya Zacharias ;  that in her childhood she resided in the Temple and uniquely had access to Al- Mihrab understood to be the Holy of Holies , and was provided with heavenly "provisions" by God.
The Qur'an relates detailed narrative accounts of Maryam Mary in two places, Qur'an 3: It mentions how Mary was informed by an angel that she would become the mother of Jesus through the actions of God alone. In the Islamic tradition, Mary and Jesus were the only children who could not be touched by Satan at the moment of their birth, for God imposed a veil between them and Satan.
Do not go beyond the bounds in your religion, and do not say anything of Allah but the truth. Allah is one of a trinity. Give up this assertion — it is for your own good to do so. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And Allah suffices as the One to be relied on, to Whom affairs should be referred. The Qur'an says that Jesus was the result of a virgin birth. The most detailed account of the annunciation and birth of Jesus is provided in Suras 3 and 19 of the Qur'an, where it is written that God sent an angel to announce that she could shortly expect to bear a son, despite being a virgin.
The statement that Joseph "knew her not till she brought forth her first born son" Matthew 1: Other biblical verses have also been debated, e. From the early stages of Christianity, belief in the virginity of Mary and the virgin conception of Jesus, as stated in the gospels, holy and supernatural, was used by detractors, both political and religious, as a topic for discussions, debates and writings, specifically aimed to challenge the divinity of Jesus and thus Christians and Christianity alike.
Christian devotion to Mary goes back to the 2nd century and predates the emergence of a specific Marian liturgical system in the 5th century, following the First Council of Ephesus in The earliest known Marian prayer the Sub tuum praesidium , or Beneath Thy Protection is from the 3rd century perhaps , and its text was rediscovered in on a papyrus in Egypt. Maria Maggiore in Rome. According to the 4th-century heresiologist Epiphanius of Salamis the Virgin Mary was worshipped as a mother goddess in the Christian sect of Collyridianism , which was found throughout Arabia sometime during the s AD.
Collyridianism had women performing priestly acts. They made bread offerings to the Virgin Mary. The group was condemned as heretical by the Roman Catholic Church and was preached against by Epiphanius of Salamis , who wrote about the group in his writings titled Panarion. The adoption of the mother of Jesus as a virtual goddess may represent a reintroduction of aspects of the worship of Isis. According to Sabrina Higgins, "When looking at images of the Egyptian goddess Isis and those of the Virgin Mary, one may initially observe iconographic similarities.
These parallels have led many scholars to suggest that there is a distinct iconographic relationship between Isis and Mary. In fact, some scholars have gone even further, and have suggested, on the basis of this relationship, a direct link between the cult of Mary and that of Isis. Ephesus is a cultic centre of Mary, the site of the first Church dedicated to her and the rumoured place of her death. Ephesus was previously a centre for worship of Artemis a virgin goddess; the Temple of Artemis there is regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
The cult of Mary was furthered by Queen Theodora in the 6th century.
Mary the mother of Jesus Biography
Phipps, in the book Survivals of Roman Religion  "Gordon Laing argues convincingly that the worship of Artemis as both virgin and mother at the grand Ephesian temple contributed to the veneration of Mary. The Middle Ages saw many legends about Mary, her parents, and even her grandparents.
The Virgin's popularity increased dramatically from the 12th century. In paintings, Mary is traditionally portrayed in blue. This tradition can trace its origin to the Byzantine Empire, from c.
A more practical explanation for the use of this colour is that in Medieval and Renaissance Europe, the blue pigment was derived from the rock lapis lazuli , a stone imported from Afghanistan of greater value than gold. Beyond a painter's retainer, patrons were expected to purchase any gold or lapis lazuli to be used in the painting. Hence, it was an expression of devotion and glorification to swathe the Virgin in gowns of blue. Transformations in visual depictions of the Virgin from the 13th to 15th centuries mirror her "social" standing within the Church as well as in society.
Over the centuries, devotion and veneration to Mary has varied greatly among Christian traditions. For instance, while Protestants show scant attention to Marian prayers or devotions, of all the saints whom the Orthodox venerate, the most honored is Mary, who is considered "more honorable than the Cherubim and more glorious than the Seraphim ". Orthodox theologian Sergei Bulgakov wrote: A faith in Christ which does not include his mother is another faith, another Christianity from that of the Orthodox church.
Although the Catholics and the Orthodox may honor and venerate Mary, they do not view her as divine, nor do they worship her. Roman Catholics view Mary as subordinate to Christ, but uniquely so, in that she is seen as above all other creatures. However, she is not considered a "substitute for the One Mediator" who is Christ. In Roman Catholic theology, the term hyperdulia is reserved for Marian veneration, latria for the worship of God, and dulia for the veneration of other saints and angels.
Devotions to artistic depictions of Mary vary among Christian traditions. There is a long tradition of Catholic Marian art and no image permeates Catholic art as does the image of Madonna and Child. The Anglican position towards Mary is in general more conciliatory than that of Protestants at large and in a book he wrote about praying with the icons of Mary, Rowan Williams , former Archbishop of Canterbury , said: The earliest feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrated the Nativity of Jesus.
Given that according to the Gospel of Luke Luke 2: In the 7th and 8th centuries four more Marian feasts were established in Eastern Christianity. In the West , a feast dedicated to Mary, just before Christmas was celebrated in the Churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy in the 7th century. The four Roman Marian feasts of Purification, Annunciation, Assumption and Nativity of Mary were gradually and sporadically introduced into England by the 11th century. Over time, the number and nature of feasts and the associated Titles of Mary and the venerative practices that accompany them have varied a great deal among diverse Christian traditions.
Mary, mother of Jesus - Wikipedia
Overall, there are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions. Differences in feasts may also originate from doctrinal issues—the Feast of the Assumption is such an example. Given that there is no agreement among all Christians on the circumstances of the death, Dormition or Assumption of Mary , the feast of assumption is celebrated among some denominations and not others. Protestants do not celebrate this, or any other Marian feasts.
There is significant diversity in the Marian doctrines attributed to her primarily by the Catholic Church. The key Marian doctrines held primarily in Catholicism can be briefly outlined as follows:. The acceptance of these Marian doctrines by Roman Catholics can be summarized as follows: The Council decreed that Mary is the Mother of God because her son Jesus is one person who is both God and man, divine and human.
The Virgin birth of Jesus was an almost universally held belief among Christians from the 2nd until the 19th century. The Gospel of Matthew describes Mary as a virgin who fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 7: The doctrines of the Assumption or Dormition of Mary relate to her death and bodily assumption to Heaven. Whether the Virgin Mary died or not is not defined dogmatically, however, although a reference to the death of Mary are made in Munificentissimus Deus. In the Eastern Orthodox Church , the Assumption of the Virgin Mary is believed, and celebrated with her Dormition , where they believe she died.
Catholics believe in the Immaculate Conception of Mary , as proclaimed ex cathedra by Pope Pius IX in , namely that she was filled with grace from the very moment of her conception in her mother's womb and preserved from the stain of original sin. The Latin Church has a liturgical feast by that name , kept on December 8. The Perpetual Virginity of Mary asserts Mary's real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man. Mary nursing the Infant Jesus. Early image from the Catacomb of Priscilla , Rome , c. Theotokos Panachranta , from the 11th century Gertrude Psalter.
Flight into Egypt by Giotto c. Lamentation by Pietro Lorenzetti , Assisi Basilica, c. Our Lady of Vladimir , a Byzantine representation of the Theotokos. Peter's Basilica , Vatican City. Adoration of the Magi , Rubens , From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the television film, see Mary, Mother of Jesus film. Madonna of the Streets by Roberto Ferruzzi , c. Jesus in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection. The Virgin in Prayer , by Sassoferrato , c. Mariology , Theotokos , and Hymns to Mary. Protestant views on Mary. Mariology and Roman Catholic Mariology. Life of the Virgin.
For a larger gallery, see Commons: Catholicism portal Christianity portal. Some denomination traditions believe Heli and his wife to be the parents of Mary. Both are highly disputed. Maryam , also known by various titles, styles and honorifics. Spiritual Truths 1st ed. Fitzmyer; Karl Paul Donfried A dictionary of the Bible.
New Theology Review ; Aug. Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Volume 3 Gordon Melton Encyclopedia of Catholicism. Retrieved September 30, Or, the Divine Maternity. The New Encyclopedia of Islam 3rd ed.
Retrieved 2 June All Roads Lead to Rome. Retrieved 19 June The Perpetual Virginity of Mary Jerome ". Luke in Matthew Henry commentary on the whole Bible complete. Retrieved 18 April Mercer dictionary of the Bible. Mary in the New Testament. The Bible Knowledge Commentary: Legends of the Madonna: Dominae as noted in; Holweck, F. The Feast of the Assumption. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. A Shorter Commentary , p. Retrieved August 20, Reconstructing Mary's Life in Ephesus by V.
Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary". Roman Catholic Marian Doctrine , pgs. Marian consecration and entrustment, item ". Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary". Archived from the original on November 14, Retrieved October 4, William Pringle, Edinburgh, Volume 2, page 87 quote. Marienlexikon Gesamtausgabe , Leo Scheffczyk, ed. Institutum Marianum, , Francis Stafford; Joseph A.
Retrieved 30 September Archived from the original on August 25, We Protestants for the most part tend to say something to the affect [sic] that, if it is not found in Scripture it is not held to be required as an article of faith. Thus, the assumption of Mary would not be held as an article of faith i. However, in as much as the Scripture does not say that Mary was not assumed into heaven, and, in as much as we do have other instances of some sort of "assumption" in Scripture e. Michael Ashcraft "Jehovah's Witnesses pray to God in the name of Jesus, but insist that the Bible never identifies Christ as an eternal Unlike so many aspects of Christianity, veneration of the The talmudic and post-talmudic discussions about the Virgin Mary are classic Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence.
Holy people of the world: Jesus Through the Qur'an and Shi'ite Narrations bilingual ed. The Bible and the Qur'an.
Mary, mother of Jesus
Islam, a Christian perspective. The Quran and the secular mind: The new encyclopedia of Islam. Understand My Muslim People. Retrieved September 10, What the Bible Really Says 1st ed.
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The sash is also attributed to the Immaculata. His scarf is tied to the end or her gown or sari. Again the importance of chastity and purity is reaffirmed. It is quite evident that the Gospels of Luke and James give us good grounding for the beginnings of an in depth study of Mary and her true identity. As early as the 2nd century, Christians venerated Mary by calling her Mother of God. This suggests the divine nature of Mary and her true place within the Holy Trinity. Closely related to the title Mother of God is the title Virgin Mary, affirming the virginal conception of Jesus Luke 1: God, not Joseph, was the true father of Jesus.
In the Marian devotion that developed in the East in the 4th century, Mary was venerated not only in the conception but also in the birth of Jesus. This conviction was expressed clearly in the 4th century, baptismal creeds of Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, and Armenia. The title used was Aieiparthenos ever-virgin , and by the middle of the 7th century the understanding of the title came to include the conviction that Mary remained a virgin for the whole of her life.
This notion reinforces the idea that Mary was not touched by this world, indeed her purity of spirit, body and mind signaled her attachment to the realms of the Gods. The passages in the New Testament referring to the brothers of Jesus for instance, Mark 6: In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, various Christian writers began to express the belief that, because of her intimate union with God through the Holy Spirit in the conception of Jesus, Mary was completely free from any taint of sin. Who else could have born the Son of God on earth?
During the late Middle Ages 13th century to 15th century , devotion to Mary grew dramatically. Mary came to be depicted as the one who interceded for sinners. As the fear of death and the Last Judgment intensified following the Black Plague in the 14th century, Mary was increasingly venerated in popular piety as mediator of the mercy of Christ. Her prayers and pleas were seen as the agency that tempered the stern justice of Christ. Let us look then at the life of Mary.
According to the histories of the twelve tribes of Israel, Joachim was a very wealthy man. Anna wept to see her husband go. All alone, she went into the garden and sat down beneath the laurel tree. Looking toward the heavens, she saw a nest of sparrows in the tree. Fresh tears welled up in her eyes. How she longed to have a child of her own. To what am I likened? I am not likened to this earth, for even the earth brings forth her fruit in its season and blesses you, O Lord. When she was six months old her mother stood her on the ground to see if she could stand.
Then she made a sanctuary in her bedroom and prohibited everything common and unclean from passing through it. Thus they did, until they had gone up into the Temple. He set her on the third step of the alter, and the Lord God gave grace to her, and she danced with her feet, and all the house of Israel loved her. At last it was time for Mary to climb the steps to the Temple.
A halo of light encircled the blessed child and filled with joy, she began to dance. Her parents returned marvelling and giving praise and glorifying the Lord God that the child did not turn back. The child sat beside him, for already she was a great favourite with these revered elders. Startled, the old priest looked at her. There she would distribute food and clothing to the poor and the elderly who came hoping for charity. In time the other girls followed her example, and the Temple became known far and wide for its generosity.
One day, as she bathed the brow of a young girl so sick with fever that she was not expected to survive the night. Mary heard angelic singing. She looked to her patient, wondering if the girl had heard it too. No, her friend was sleeping peacefully for the first time in days. And you use His good favor to help others. By doing so you honour Him greatly. Tomorrow have each suitor bring with him a staff. Kneeling, they prayed for a sign. All at once a lily was seen to bloom from the staff held by the widower Joseph, a builder and carpenter. And then a snow white dove alighted upon the staff before flying off.
In the meantime, Mary returned to her parents while Joseph departed for a distant town where he was about to begin work on the building of a Temple. The commission was a great honour, but it would separate the couple for nearly a year. At day break one spring morning, Mary went to draw water from the well before her parents awakened. All at once she heard a voice.
Holy is your name.